Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Essay on Bertrand Russell - 5284 Words

Bertrand Russell Introduction Bertrand Russell was one of the preeminent thinkers of the 20th century. His work on mathematical logic laid the basis for a good portion of modern mathematics; his political thought was influential both in his time and after; and his philosophical thought is both complicated and highly intelligent. He is considered one of the two or three most important logicians of the 20th century. During his lifetime he was a high profile figure and grew to have a high degree of respectability -- in fact, he died at age 97, in 1970, so during his own lifetime he saw his own fame grow to immense proportions. He also fits Howard Gardners ideas on genius in many ways, although not all of them, as we shall see. But†¦show more content†¦It was a huge, daunting undertaking; along the way, Russell enlisted the help of his friend, Alfred North Whitehead, and the task of writing the book took over ten years. The book is complicated; exceedingly complicated, in fact. Russell biographer Ray Monk calls it almost totally incomprehensible, and Russell himself recognized that he had written a work that few in the world would ever read and fewer would understand. The three volume work, which is filled with symbols that Russell and Whitehead devised for the specific purpose of writing the book, doesnt even reach the occasionally useful proof of 1 + 1 = 2 until almost halfway through. On top of this, Russell ran into a paradox while writing the book. This paradox, called Russells Paradox, deals with the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. Attempting to construct such a set leads to an unavoidable paradox. It is analogous to the thought problem: If the barber is defined as someone who cuts the hair of those people who do not cut their own hair, who cuts the barbers hair? This logical problem dogged Russell incessantly and was a flaw in the architecture of Principia Mathematica. In fact, later in the century, the logician Kurt Godel proved that, as Monk puts it: there can . . . be no logical theory within which all truths about numbers can be derived as theorems; all logicalShow MoreRelatedBertrand Russell And The Greatest Philosopher1261 Words   |  6 PagesBERTRAND RUSSELL Bertrand Russell was born on May 18, 1872 into British aristocracy, In 1931 career centered on work as a philosophy professor, writer and public lecturer. He not only knew but worked with many dominant figures in the late 19th and 20th century as a philosopher, a mathematician, science as well as politics. Russell was arguably the greatest philosopher in the 20th century. Although Russell was a decent man he got most of his ideas from Gottolob Frege, a German mathematician, logicianRead MoreThe Value Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell803 Words   |  4 PagesThe essay The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell suggests that many â€Å"practical† people view philosophy as rather useless, because these people are – according to Bertrand Russell – operating both with wrong conceptions about the ends of life and wrong conceptions about what goods philosophy strives to achieve. According to Russell the value of philosophy is in what it does for the person who studies it. He makes the point that goods of the mind are as important in life as goods of the bodyRead MoreWhat Work Is Really For By Bertrand Russell1315 Words   |  6 PagesBert rand Russell author of, â€Å"In Praise of Idleness,† and Gary Gutting, author of, â€Å"What Work Is Really For,† both introduced persuading argument justifying their respective views on work and leisure. In the essay, â€Å"In Praise of Idleness,† Russell conveys a much more interesting case in which he shows his concern about the importance of leisure to the society. He believes by reducing our working hours from eight to four hours will give us more time for leisure which will in turn increase our creativityRead MoreBertrand Russell on Analytical Philsophy Essay example1129 Words   |  5 Pages - Bertrand Russell, The Philosophy of Logical Atomism. Bertrand Russell was born in 1872 in Wales, England as a member of a famous British family. He received a degree from Trinity Cambridge College with honors in Mathematics and Moral Sciences. His most famous works included the subjects of logic and philosophy, which were deeply rooted in his mathematics background. In fact, Russell is probably the most highly regarded and most read English-speaking philosopher of our time. Russell wasRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Problems Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell1907 Words   |  8 PagesBertrand Russell, was a famous British logician, mathematician, essayist, and philosopher. He has made many contributions on certain subjects, most notably the subject of philosophy. One of his most influential works in philosophy was the book â€Å"Problems of Philosophy†. In this book, he addresses certain philosophical issues that tend to be a problem in terms of what is true or false in our universe. In this essay, chapter one and two will b e analyzed. These chapters will explain Bertrand Russell’sRead MoreFamous Thinkers Essay Dr. King and Bertrand Russell1363 Words   |  6 Pagessimilarities in that allow them to hold the position a â€Å"famous thinker.† Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929-April 3, 1929) and Bertrand Russell (May 18, 1872-February 2, 1970) are two famous thinkers that are discussed in this paper. Each of these men changed the way people viewed the issues of the day through the creative process. King and Russell made identifiable contributions to society during an era of difficult social times. The subject matter of this paper will investigate dilemmasRead MoreAnalysis of Bertrand Russell ´s The Problems of Philosphy Essay1048 Words   |  5 Pages06455401 1) The philosopher Bertrand Russell in his work, â€Å"The Problems of Philosophy,† comes to some conclusions of the truth of objects in our world. Through questioning certain ideas and problems in our world, he breaks down what can know what really exists in the world and what does not. Russell, an empiricist, believes that through our sensory perception of our environment. However, our own individual perception can be skewed, and therefore is susceptible to err. Russell gives an example of threeRead MoreThe Problems Of Philosophy By Bertrand Russell, Ayn Rand, And Christopher Hitchens1778 Words   |  8 Pagespotential and utilized it to its fullest. In the following essay, three prominent philosophers; Bertrand Russell, Ayn Rand, and Christopher Hitchens. Each gives their insight to three important topics; the value of philosophy, using philosophy and its value, and the importance of freedom of speech. All of whom will be discussed, and agreement or disagreement will also be concluded and supported. Bertrand Russell’s essay â€Å"The Problems of Philosophy†, is in most ways an argument for the continuationRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Philosophy And Philosophy998 Words   |  4 Pagesbut philosophy has even formed practical human applications. Bertrand Russell details these applications created by philosophy in his work, The Problems of Philosophy. Russell details that the scientific revelations philosophy has can have the potential of producing many applications. The knowledge philosophy has produced has developed into many of the sciences of today. Russell explains that â€Å"the science of psychology† (Bertrand Russell 3) resulted from the questioning of what humans now call theRead MoreComparing Frege And Russells View On Proper Names1687 Words   |  7 Pages It is plausible to think of Frege and Russell as both being descriptivists about proper names. In what sense is that so? Why do they accept descriptivism? On the other hand, the two theories are very different. How so? Do you think Russell s view or Frege s view is superior? 2032431 Gottob Frege and Bertrand Russell are descriptivists, this is apparent with regard to proper names. I demonstrate how their theories are different from each other with respect to proper names, sentences

Friday, May 15, 2020

Intercultural Communication Understanding, Culture, And...

Intercultural communication is about distinctions and variances that refer to traditional, and everyday life. In this reflection paper I will display supporting factors that contribute to my understanding of cultures. I will present my understanding of my background, experiences, culture, and perspectives. In addition. give my understanding of acceptance and differences in background, experience, culture and perspectives outside of my culture by giving my understanding of cognitive and behavioral strategies and personal experiences that have been effective and ineffective in regards to intercultural communication. I have listed the order of importance to myself as it relates to intercultural communication. â€Å"I knew we differed culturally, but different isn’t wrong; different is merely different. Basically we’re all humans† (Deon Meyer). How the student understands his or her background, experiences, culture, and perspectives: My understanding of my own background or upbringing and what my parents and grandparents instilled in me is that rule number one everyone is created equal treat others how you would like to be treated. My culture is what has been determined to be an African American, I say considered due to the fact I did not originate from Africa but yet I am considered to be an African American. There are a number of â€Å"black† people residing in America and I can’t necessarily say that they are from Africa, but I do know from experience that African descendants areShow MoreRelatedIntercultural Mediation in a Postmodern World1717 Words   |  7 PagesThis presentation will focus on mediation and the very notion of intercultural mediator in a postmodern world. Mediation is the process of intercultural transformation for all parties involved and also a learning resource in newly constructed spaces of social interactions. Mediation refers to an intercultural spatiality (the socially produced space (Lefebvre 1991), which is not static but constitutive of social relations (Rick, 1997). Here it is useful to adopt Lefebvre’s unitary theory of spaceRead MoreIntercultural Communication : Communication And Communication1676 Words   |  7 PagesJasmin Starr-Mullins COM 440 W Final Term Paper Intercultural Communication The terms Culture,Globalization, and Communication are terms that we might hear quite often, but what is Intercultural communication? According to the dictionary, Intercultural Communication is often described as the interaction and exchange of communication between people of different cultures. Intercultural Communication dates back to the first interaction of mankind. Edward T. Hall, an American anthropologistRead MoreAnalysis Of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie s Ted Talk, The Danger Of A Single Story1237 Words   |  5 Pagesnarrative that surrounds only one perspective. The objective of her speech is to inform her audience that assuming something is true based on a single piece of information gives us incomplete and incorrect perceptions. Society is an accumulation of social stories, it is never just one thing. There are multiple, contingent and overlapping ways to experience and articulate cultural identity (Delgado, 2009). When we view a person or place from only one perspective, we assume one aspect of a story asRead MoreI Have Learned More About Myself By Exposing Myself Essay1048 Words   |  5 Pageslearned more about myself by exposing myself to different experiences. By doing so, my implicit biases, stereotypes and prejudices toward other groups have changed. I have found myself stepping out of my normal routines, which has given me a better understanding of people who are different from me and have led me to see how the stereotypes I had come to be. I have also learned more about myself by keeping those biases that I have in mind and taking the proper steps to correct them. Also I have learnedRead MoreNon-Verbal Communication and Inter-Cultural Communication Essay1249 Words   |  5 Pages Nonverbal communication is defined as the approach of conveying information and data by using speech, visuals, signs , behavior etc. Approximately 65% of the communication takes place through nonverbal attributes. Generally communication takes place with three steps. FIRST Is the thought or idea that comes in the mind of the sender. SECOND is the encoding which means sending message to the receiver in a particular gesture or sign or via a particular medium. THIRD is decoding of message which meansRead MoreUnderstanding Cultures And Intercultural Communication1512 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Understanding cultures and intercultural communication in terms of countries and nationalities is no longer relevant or effective.† Evaluate this statement, referring to relevant theories and using examples where appropriate. Student ID: 6749473 Academic subject: MSC Accounting and Financial Management Word count: 1511 Topicï ¼Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å"Understanding cultures and intercultural communication in terms of countries and nationalities is no longer relevant or effective.† Evaluate this statement, referringRead MoreIntercultural Communication At The Health Of Indigenous Australians Essay1301 Words   |  6 Pagesability to successfully communicate proficiently with other cultures is paramount. Intercultural communication is becoming increasingly important in the healthcare industry as many workers must learn how to communicate effectively with people from other cultures. For many businesses, effective intercultural communication stands to bring them increased business and profits; however, in the health care industry, effective intercultural communication carries greater importance as it affects patients’ physicalRead MoreThe Probability Of Having Effective Cultural Interaction1039 Words   |  5 Pagesthe probability of having effective cultural interaction and communication in a majority Muslim country and the Muslim community. This understanding of the cognitive and behavioral strategies that are most likely to result in effective intercultural communication thus helps to understand and/or accept the similarities and differences in the background, experience, culture and perspectives of individuals from a culture different that mine. This is the fourth most important dimension as it is seeminglyRead MoreHow I Can Improve Communication883 Words   |  4 PagesCan Improve Communication Well how do I go about improving myself in communication competence? Communication in relationships could make or break that relationship. Depending on a variety of factors to be effective at communication, one has to rely on the areas of self-awareness to include personality, values, habits, needs and emotions. In using these to develop a better understanding of how we ourselves communicate with others. We will be analyzing the intercultural communication competence byRead MoreInternational Companies and Intercultural Communication1309 Words   |  5 Pagesgained from intercultural communication can either be effectively or useless applied in the everyday experiences of International students. By now, it is obvious that the world is becoming progressively global. There is no doubt that this topic has attracted heated debates from various groups as it affects the multiplicity of cultures and international students. There is controversy between the two groups as some think that it i s helpful due to the development of their understanding and interaction

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Success and Failure of the Civil Rights Movement Essay

The Civil Rights Movement had a lot going on between 1954 and 1964. While there were some successful aspects of the movement, there were some failures as well. The mixture of successes and failures led to the extension of the movement and eventually a more equal American society. Success was a big part of the Civil Rights Movement. Starting with the year 1954, there were some major victories in favor of African Americans. In 1954, the landmark trial Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka Kansas ruled that segregation in public education was unfair. This unanimous Supreme Court decision overturned the prior Plessy vs. Ferguson case during which the â€Å"separate but equal† doctrine was created and abused. One year later, Rosa Parks and†¦show more content†¦Victory was seen months later when the same four students that initiated the movement were served at the counter. Prior to the sit-ins, youth showed their strength during the movement. The Little Rock Nine, a group of nine black high school students, were the first to integrate into an all white school in Little Rock, Arkansas. These nine students, despite being blocked from attending the school by the governor, showed how serious the United States was about educational integration; Pres ident Eisenhower himself issued an order for federal troops and the National Guard to make sure that the students made it to school safely. In 1962, success came in the form of James Meredith when he became the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Although he was also met with resistance, 5,000 governmental troops were sent by the president’s orders to dispel the chaos. SNCC or the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was formed in favor of youth and inspired by the SCLC. This organization gave young African Americans an important role to play in the movement and increased the peaceful, unified nature of the Civil Rights Movement. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee initiated events like â€Å"freedom rides† where student volunteers tested laws prohibiting segregation on public transportation and was not just for blacks, but other people with the sameShow MoreRelated The Civil Rights Movement and the Kerner Commission Essays142 3 Words   |  6 Pages The civil rights movement was a period of time when blacks attempted to gain their constitutional rights of which they were being deprived. The movement has occurred from the 1950s to the present, with programs like Affirmative Action. Many were upset with the way the civil rights movement was being carried out in the 1960s. As a result, someone assassinated the leader of the movement, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Many blacks were infuriated at this death so there were serious riots inRead MoreEssay on The Success of the Civil Rights Movement651 Words   |  3 Pagessignificant improvement in the lives of black people through the Success of the civil rights movement by the late 1960s, there were also some failures and aspects that the civil rights movement had not achieved. These failures were social, economical, political and cultural. These failures included the fact that some laws were not upheld. Black people saw this as an injustice and inconvenience and as a failure economically. There was unemployment to a certain degree amongstRead MoreHow far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?1574 Words   |  7 PagesHow far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s? Historians argue how far the forces opposed to the civil rights were responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s. The CRM was a social movement attacking racial and social discrimination against Black Americans in the southern and northern states. By 1960 the southern states was desegregated. The problems faced in the south were different to those ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Bloody Lowndes1569 Words   |  7 PagesJefferies The Civil Rights Struggle Markà © C. Wrisborne AFTS/ HIST 3390: The Modern Civil Rights Movement Dr. Michael Williams November 13, 2017 Bloody Lowndes was written by a historian named Hassan Kwame Jefferies. The book details the African American struggles faced in the fight for freedom in the rural area of Lowndes County, during the1960’s. He examines different activist groups, the leaders within those groups, and their impact/ role played on the Civil Rights MovementRead MoreMartin Luther King Essay1440 Words   |  6 Pagesof the Civil Rights Movement? Martin Luther King was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whose aim was to obtain equality between the races. He believed that this was best done using non-violence (inspired by Gandhi), and so he preached peace. Although he is widely recognised as the main face of the Civil Rights Movement, there were others who contributed in a crucial fashion to the progression of this movement. Rosa Parks, for example, ignited the match which set off the Civil Rights MovementRead MoreA Stone Of Hope : Prophetic Religion And The Death Of Jim Crow786 Words   |  4 Pagesface of the National Civil Rights Movement delivered, arguably, the most renowned and recited speech of the past sixty years. The infamous ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. In this historic moment, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr famously stated, â€Å"he was going back to the South with faith that his people could hew a stone of hope from a mountain of despair.† (1) An effort considered by many to be the greatest, most successful social movement in our nation’s history, the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s-60s usheredRead MoreThe Past Occurrences Of African Americans1202 Words   |  5 Pagessociety stemmed from several unsuccessful attempts that eventually resulted in victory. Slave revolts, pleas for emancipation, and bids for equal rights were never initially successful when they involved violence. Each early attempt failed quite miserably, however, those who persevered learned from past failures of violent displays, and eventually found success if they were to approach it appropriatel y. From its conception, the horrific institution of slavery in the United States faced several revoltsRead MoreSummary Of Agony And Ecstasy, By Lala Brooks1629 Words   |  7 Pages so I could not tell you how or what he kept of ours â€Å"(History of Rock). Their success was dimmed by Phil Spector. He expressed that in producing music, he was focusing on the sound, â€Å"I was looking for a sound, a sound so strong that if the material was not the greatest, the sound would carry the record† (Wikipedia). His goal was to make â€Å"little symphonies for the kids†, rather than genuinely caring for the success of his artists. As LaLa Brooks said, â€Å"He thought so much of himself that he didn’tRead MoreThe Reconstruction Essay925 Words   |  4 PagesThe Reconstruction Reconstruction is defined as the period following the Civil War in which the Republican-dominated Federal government sought to reunite the Union; the measure included drastically remodeling Southern society in order to secure equality and independence for blacks through granting them various freedoms. Many historians believe that in order to fully understand the modern United States, one must understand Reconstruction. Studying it, therefore, has beenRead MorePositive Impact Of The Civil Rights Movement1257 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement is the movement for equal rights for African-Americans. Throughout the years, people have used their first amendment right the speak freely and to protest. This has lead to change in America. That’s what citizenship is about, when you feel like something should be changed you can do something about. We’ve seen it happen in the past, when people want change, they will either express their opinion by voting for it on the ballot or do something larger than that like protesting

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Group Communication Business Research Community

Question: Discuss about theGroup Communicationfor Business Research Community. Answer: Introduction The core purpose of this study is to emphasise the concept of group communication and groupthink by considering a specific case study. The study primarily zoncentrates on the groupthink in business with specific reference of Marks Spencers and British Airways case of the 1990s. Initially, the study establishes a theoretical knowledge regarding the groupthink which helps to understand the case study more effectively. Afterwards, the case study of Marks Spencer's and British Airways is manifested with relevant data and information. Along with that, the study also analyses the reason behind the operational failure of the chosen case study. Groupthink It has been found that the psychologist Irving Janiss publication of Groupthink phenomenon widely accepted in the business research community (Schafer Crichlow, 2010). Considering the statement of Sunstein Hastie (2015), it can be stated that groupthink takes place when a certain group makes faculty decisions. In this context, it is essential to mention that the group pressure deteriorates the moral judgement, reality testing, and mental efficiency of the individuals present in a group. Ntayi et al. (2010) criticised that groupthink leads people to take irrational actions which affect other people or the business where they are engaged. It is also mentioned that when the people in a group belong to a similar background, the groupthink results in a vulnerable outcome. In most of the organisations, the leadership techniques are incorporated in such a way so that the groupthink can be prevented in the workplace. Supporting the discussion, Kowert (2012) added that it is quite challengi ng for the managers to take effective actions for avoiding the groupthink. As per Janiss groupthink phenomenon indicates that cohesion is the primary antecedent for groupthink. In this context, it should be mentioned that two major types of cohesions are there that include task-based cohesion and interpersonal cohesion. As opined by Sunstein Hastie (2015), the interpersonal cohesion occurs from the personal relationship. On the other hand, the mutual commitment in a group might create task-based cohesion. Case Study of Marks Spencer's and British Airways in the 1990s The study considers the groupthink example from the corporate world. The case study of UK based organisations British Airways and Mark Spencer. In the period of 1990s, a negative impact of groupthink has been noticed when the two companies British Airways and Mark Spencer released globalisation expansion strategies (Riordan Riordan, 2013). As per the content analysis of media press release of Jack Eaton, the eight symptoms of groupthink were present during this period. Supporting the discussion, Redding (2012) represents these symptoms of groupthink are as below: Collective Rationalisation: Turner et al. (2011) stated that the collective rationalisation took place in this respective case study where the team thought that their decision is correct. However, arguments took place as groupthink directs the team to make a specific decision even if it is wrong. Peer Pressure Kowert (2012) opined peer pressure is another major symptom in the groupthink. In a context of the case study, it has been found that at the time when one or two persons decided to oppose the decisions of the entire team, he was told to leave the team. This indicates that the team pressure leads everyone to pursue the decision taken by the majority of the group. Complacency As per the discussion of Bnabou (2012), this particular symptom is noticed when the team is over confident about their decisions. At the time when the two companies British Airways and Mark Spencer has released the globalisation expansion strategies, they were confident that this would lead their business towards success. Tidd (2014) criticised that their globalisation strategies led to the fall of their reputation and stock market value due to their illusion of invulnerability. Moral High Ground Considering the discussion of Riordan Riordan (2013), it has been found that morality was superior to both of the respective companies British Airways and Marks Spencer. Their belief of not making an immoral decision was the reason that they avoid to identify all the potential failures. Stereotyped Views of Outsiders Turner et al. (2011) stated that he agreement of the groups is the reason that they think the outsider have inferior views. Censorship Turner et al. (2011) further opined that the groups chose to have some personal opinions which are the reflection of the culture where they worked. Self-appointed Mind Guards In words of Riordan Riordan (2013), it has been noticed that cohesion values reached beyond the value of making right decisions for these two companies. Illusion of Unanimity Tidd (2014) shared the statement that all members of the groups saw the unanimity and this was the reason that no one defended the decision taken by these two groups. Reason of its Operational Failure Among all the eight symptoms mentioned above, the most predominant symptom of groupthink was Illusion of unanimity' that caused operational failure of the companies (Riordan Riordan, 2013). In order to be more precise, both the organisations underestimated the activity of identifying potential risk during the years of their success when their business profitability increases. Turner et al. (2011) mentioned that this risk led them towards failure in the increasingly competitive market. It is also mentioned that the blue chips and darlings of the London Stock Exchange were considered by these companies. The wrong decisions were the major reason of the operational failure of these two companies. The share of British Airways and Marks Spencer dropped from 740 to 300 and 590 to less than 300 during the period 1998-1999 (Tidd, 2014). Conclusion The study concludes that groupthink leads a particular group towards a collaborative approach where everyone pursues the decision whatever the group is decided. There is no scope of delivering oppose views if anyone thinks the decision is not correct in respect of the business goal. The same things happened in the case of British Airways and Marks Spencer when they decided to incorporate globalisation expansion strategies. The study concludes that the companies underestimated the identification the potential risks in the challenging market. This was the prime reason of their operational failure. Reference List Bnabou, R. (2012). Groupthink: Collective delusions in organizations and markets.The Review of Economic Studies, rds030. Kowert, P. (2012).Groupthink or deadlock: when do leaders learn from their advisors?. SUNY Press. Ntayi, J. M., Byabashaija, W., Eyaa, S., Ngoma, M., Muliira, A. (2010). Social cohesion, groupthink and ethical behavior of public procurement officers.Journal of Public procurement,10(1), 68. Redding, R. E. (2012). Likes attract: The sociopolitical groupthink of (social) psychologists.Perspectives on Psychological Science,7(5), 512-515. Riordan, D., Riordan, M. (2013). Guarding against groupthink in the professional work environment: a checklist.Journal of Academic and Business Ethics,7, 1. Schafer, M., Crichlow, S. (2010).Groupthink versus high-quality decision making in international relations. Columbia University Press. Sunstein, C. R., Hastie, R. (2015).Wiser: Getting beyond groupthink to make groups smarter. Harvard Business Press. Tidd, J. (2014). Conjoint innovation: Building a bridge between innovation and entrepreneurship.International Journal of Innovation Management,18(01), 1450001. Turner, M. E., Pratkanis, A. R., Struckman, C. K. (2011). Groupthink refers to the extreme concurrence-seeking displayed by.The science of social influence: Advances and future progress, 223.

Monday, April 13, 2020

The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by HG Wells and the Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler Essay Example

The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by HG Wells and the Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler Paper I have been asked to read two stories from the science fiction genre and discuss and comment on the similarities and differences. The two stories that I have read are; The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by H. G. Wells and The Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler. Both of these stories are of the same genre, but science fiction is difficult to define. In order for me to complete this essay, and compare the two stories to their full extent, I feel that I must comprehend what science fiction means and what makes a good science fiction story. Different writers have their own definitions. I have chosen two, which I believe to express simple but different views. Ray Bradburys definition states; Science fiction is really sociological studies of the future, things that the writer believes are going to happen by putting two and two together. Whereas Bruce H. Franklin said; In fact, one good working definition of science fiction may be the literature which, growing with science and technology, evaluates it and relates it meaningfully to the rest of human existence. Both of these definitions are comprehensive and frequently used, although, we have to recognise that they represent the writers own opinions and are therefore subjective. Although the definitions vary, and are influenced from different sources, they could prove useful in considering the likeness of the stories to the definitions and provide a good framework for assessing them. Studying definitions is not the only way to classify the stories as being good science fiction. We will write a custom essay sample on The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by HG Wells and the Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by HG Wells and the Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Case of the Stolen Bacillus by HG Wells and the Half Pair by Bertrum Chandler specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There are main elements which all good science fiction stories contain that fit into the science fiction genre. They are set in the future, contain a moral and there are often twists in the plots. Usually the human behaviour is determined by the era in which it was written. By both comparing the stories to the main elements and the definitions I shall be able to consider the factors of each story that provide good science fiction. I feel that to help me with the task set it is necessary to know background information about the authors and the time of their writing. The authors upbringing and way of life before and during novel writing is one very important factor that I have to consider when making comparisons between the stories. It is very clear when reading both, that they have been heavily influenced by previous experiences encountered, as well as their general perception of the world around them. Both writers are also heavily influenced by the era in which they grew up and lived, there are many references to aspects unique to these times, as well as to aspects in which each author is opinionated on. These influences affect the way the stories are written as well as the way the characters behave and the language that is used. The influences are shown in many ways throughout both stories. The Case of the Stolen Bacillus was written by H. G. Wells. He was born in 1866 into the cramped life of Victorian lower middle class of Bromley, Kent. Due to unfortunate circumstances involving his father, at the age of thirteen H. G. Wells was sent to work in a drapers shop. His passion for science grew as he got older and he frequently sneaked off to the library to study. His hard work finally paid off when he won a scholarship to study science at the Imperial College, London. It was during his time here where H. G. Wells became increasingly concerned with social justice and got involved with the Fabian society. This society encouraged Wellss belief in the socialist movement, which sought to bring about a fairer society by planning a gradual system of reforms. The Case of the Stolen Bacillus is set, as well as written, in Victorian England, so consequently the story portrays England in a different way from which we know it today. This way of living provoked many different beliefs and ideas on issues that may seem controversial today. One aspect that Wells put across through his story is that of male dominance. At the time when the story was written and set, males were seen to be superior to the women, and were therefore treated with more respect and authority. The main role of women was seen to be bringing up of children and housekeeping. Wells has included references of this within the story by the way he has portrayed the relationship between Minnie and her husband. This is shown in one particular conversation when Minnie is asked a question by her husband, she politely replies, Nothing, dear, because I remember However, she is interrupted abruptly by her husband, which is a typical example of how much respect husbands and wives had of each other during that era. Present within this period was a definite system of class and position within society, with three main sectors; the lower class, the middle class and the upper class. The lower class categorized the poorest in society, and was the lowest group in the system. Nowadays it is often referred to as the working class which reflects the nature of the people within it, who often worked in industry or were unemployed and lived in the terraced slums around a city. The middle class were seen by the Victorians as a group with a higher position within society. They were given more respect compared with the lower class, however were not as rich as the upper class. The upper class were a group defined for the richest in society that consisted mainly of the local gentry. Throughout Wellss story there are many references to the class system, most expressing subtle stereotypical views. Due to his beliefs as a socialist he did not agree with the class system and these heavily influence the story as his opinions are reflected many times throughout. Wells uses ingenious techniques to put across his opinions skilfully without being too direct. He often uses subtle mocking of characters that display stereotypical behaviour of a certain class. We can tell this from the speeches of the cab driver and the bacteriologist. The cab driver is stereotypically portrayed as a lower class Victorian man who has not been educated very well. This is evident when he says, Thats Arry Ilks. Wots he got? The way Wells writes the cabmans speech implies that all cabmen are of his calibre. Wells therefore suggests that all cab drivers are not well spoken and educated. Another character which Wells stereotypes, is the bacteriologist. Wells portrays him as a middle class man and a typical scientist, he says when talking to the Anarchist, Here is the living thing. This is the cultivation of the actual living disease bacteria. This shows that he is a well-spoken character from a well-educated background. He is portrayed as a typical scientist due to the manner in which he behaves. Wells creates his character to seem rather eccentric and lively, this is shown when he reacts instantly and without thinking, when he finds out that the cholera has been stolen. By stereotyping different classes, it is possible that Wellss intention was not to be making fun of the lower class, but mocking the upper class people for treating others less prominent in society the way they do. The Background regarding the Half Pair is very different from The Case of the Stolen Bacillus, even though they both aim to produce a good piece of science fiction writing. Arthur Bertrum Chandler, born in 1912, wrote the Half Pair. Although born in Aldershot, UK he is usually considered as an Australian author. Over half his life was spent at sea on a British tramp steamer and then finally joined the Union Steam Ship of New Zealand. During these passages at sea, he wrote many of his novels, however he retired in 1975 but continued to write until his death. This piece of science fiction writing was written in 1957, but set many years in the future. There are many references to the 1950s within the story as well as futuristic ideas. This is evident when the wife includes within her speech references to everyday chores relating to the 1950s, such as making dinner, as well as futuristic ideas of space. She says, Since when can I do without gravity even though a centrifugal force in the gallery? Youve ruined dinner. Wells often includes within this story speeches that reflect upon the time of writing as well as including ideas that would have been seen as very futuristic, but not as significant nowadays. Another aspect of this story that has been influenced by the authors way of life is the constant references that are made to his time spent at sea. The main setting for the story is a space ship, which is probably done because the author is used to spending time onboard ships and there are therefore many references in the use of language and descriptions to that of a boat. Although set on a space ship, the story is described with many similarities to that of a boat. References such as the use of the word chandler, which is used when referring to the place where the characters bought their equipment. When you get back to mars demand a survey of all the equipment sold by Sorenson the ship chandler The Half Pair and The Case of the Stolen Bacillus, both fit into the science fiction genre but are completely different in content and ideas. However, there are some similarities such as the elements that make up a science fiction story. One of the noticeable differences between the two stories is the time scale. The Half Pair is written in the 1950s, but set far into the future, whereas The Case of the Stolen Bacillus is set and written in the Victorian era. This proves vital in the type of story that is produced, as different eras had different views on English way of life as many things had changed since the Victorian era. This is shown in the two stories by the way the writers express themselves and include references to daily life i. e. the references to nautical terms in Half Pair and references to class in Stolen Bacillus. During the 1950s there was seen to be more freedom within society, which was less inhibited by the class structure that had nearly been abolished. This is one of the biggest differences between the two stories backgrounds, however there are similarities. Although the class system was comparatively non-existent at the time of Half Pairs writing there are still small references to the belief that men were more prominent than women in society. This is evident in Half Pair by the way the wife is stereotypically portrayed as a housewife. An example occurs as she makes dinner for her husband. Bertrum Chandler has also created some humour in regards to the roles of men and women in society. Both the husband a wife have a conversation which makes light of the small belief that men had a greater position within life, but it also shows how women had gained a lot more respect in society and were not as dominated by their husbands. This is shown in a particular conversation between the husband and wife, where the wife says, Some women are fools enough to trust their husbands. Theyre the ones who havent learned the hard way, the same way I did. The husband replies, Some men are fools enough to kid themselves that their wives have an elementary knowledge of pluming. The writers backgrounds are totally different, and consequently, as I have shown, the stories differ greatly as a result. Another aspect of the stories which is affected due to the writers backgrounds, are the plots. Although from the same genre the plots differ extensively. The Case of the Stolen Bacilluss main plot involves an amateur bacteriologist who receives a visit from an undercover anarchist in Victorian London. The anarchist who is nothing other than a stranger to the bacteriologist pretends to be interested in his work and asks to see ongoing experiments. The naive bacteriologist takes the opportunity to boast about his investigation into the newly discovered disease of cholera. The anarchist (now identified by the bacteriologist) steals the cholera bacteria, with plans to release the cholera bacteria into the cities water supply with the intention of infecting the whole city. This incident provokes a cab chase involving the bacteriologist pursuing the anarchist who unintentionally breaks the tube containing the cholera. Consequently, the anarchist drinks the solution as he sees this as the only resort and proceeds to walk round the streets bumping into people with the hope of them catching and spreading the disease. The outcome of this contains a twist within the plot for the readers as the anarchist turns blue. It is revealed that the solution was not cholera, but a disease that turns monkeys blue. The Half Pair differs completely in regards to the plot and is set in future outer space. Its main plot is created by a pair of cuff links and a couple who live onboard a space ship. The cuff links begin the story by one being lost, this is due to being washed down the sink into the ships disposal system and excreted into outer space. This causes certain unease with the couple who seem to be partial to the pair of cuff links. The man decides that he wants to venture into space to retrieve it, although it becomes evident that it is a two person task. The man has no-one to enter space with because his wife has a phobia of space suits, he therefore goes alone. This results in havoc as he runs out of oxygen and his lifeline snaps. The last part of the story contains a twist, as the reader believes that the man is destined for death as he passes out and begins to float into space, however his wife overcomes her phobia and saves him. The plots of these stories contain many techniques that induce the reader to continue reading. The way the climaxes are built up in each story has a major effect on how dramatic they are. In the Stolen Bacillus the climax is built up gradually, Wells does this in two main sections. He firstly creates and air of expectation for the reader which involves the anticipation of a London catastrophe and what the anarchist could do. The tension slowly rises and builds up to the chase sequence, where the anarchist is trying to escape. The climax is resolved with a twist in the plot that also has an effect as an anticlimax. The Half Pair however, contains a slightly more subtle climax. It is built up around a couple having an argument in a domestic situation; the argument causes the tension to build up gradually until the husband finds himself floating around in space in trouble. It is not as dramatic as the climax in The Stolen Bacillus, but resolves itself with a rather cliched happy ending. Both of the stories climaxes are used to maintain the readers interest and I believe that both are effective as the reader is wondering what is going to happen next in many sections. In the past, at the time of writing, another aspect that would have helped to keep readers attention would have been the way that in both stories the writer has included ideas and objects which the readers could have related to the then present day. Nowadays this could also possibly help the interest levels of the reader as they are finding out a different way of life giving a historical perspective of the story. This applies more so to The Stolen Bacillus, as it is further into the past. Both stories are similar in the fact that they contain twists, where the reader is lead to believe a different outcome up till close to the end where it is dramatically twisted another way round. The twist in the Stolen Bacillus was an anticlimax. I believe this was reasonably effective as it created some tension as a result of the possible damage which the anarchist could have caused. It also added humour, which may or may not have been Wellss intention, but I believe is effective. The twist used in The Half Pair is used to create an ending that lasts in your mind. When you find out that the wife has saved her husband it comes as a surprise, which adds excitement to the story. In both plots the main story line involves items going missing i. e. the bacteria and the cuff links, this is another similarity between the stories. Another aspect that makes the stories similar is how they both contain ideas and technology relevant to the era when it was written. The Case of the Stolen Bacillus was written at a time when the UK was rife with many epidemics such as cholera. These diseases, at the time, were not thoroughly known about, so many scientists would have been investigating and researching them. At the time when Half Pair was written, men in space, and space travel was a new idea that was being discovered. Although this is a similarity it can also be a difference as each story has been influenced by a different time of history. Characters are a major feature in stories and contain a strong link between the plots, and the morals and messages they are preaching. In both stories there is a great similarity in the fact that that they both have couples as the main characters. The Stolen Bacillus however, contains another prominent role played as an anarchist as well as also having minor characters included within it. This differs from The Half Pair, as within this story there are no other characters apart from the couple. Both Wellss story and Chandlers stories were of a short length, which means that the authors had a confined amount of time to create and develop characters. Consequently we see in both stories very strong characters displaying strong personalities. In The Case of the Stolen Bacillus there are three prominent characters, the anarchist, The Bacteriologist and Minnie, his wife. Wells uses many techniques to display these three characters in certain ways to try and create a vivid image for readers. I feel that Wells intended for the anarchist to be portrayed as a villain and he uses dialogue, imagery and atmosphere to show this. Wells describes the anarchist a pale faced man and as having deep grey eyes. This dull imagery gives the impression to the reader that the man is up to no good and it is backed up with the language which he uses to suggest that the anarchist is a baddy. It is particularly evident that Wells is trying to conjure up a bad image for the anarchist when the anarchist says, death mysterious, untraceable death, death swift and terrible, death full of pain and indignity would be released on this city. Although I believe Wells tries to conjure up a picture regarding the anarchist as a villain, I feel that he is more successful in creating a character that appears to be ignorant. Wells probably intentionally does this, as he tries to make fun of anarchism and through mocking the anarchist he can achieve this and express his opinions to the readers. This is shown when he says, These Anarchist rascals, are fools, blind fools to use bombs when this kind of thing is attainable. The Bacteriologist is another prominent character in Stolen Bacillus, however very different in personality. Wells portrays him, very stereotypically, as a boastful amateur scientist who wants to appear to be very intellectual. Wells uses the speeches between characters to portray this, especially in is opening speech when he says, This again, is a preparation of the celebrated Bacillus of Cholera the cholera germ. The reader discovers later on in the story that the scientist was leading the anarchist on, and realises that the bacteria wasnt actually cholera. This shows that the character of the scientist is maybe not so stereotypical as Wells first makes out. Although, Wells does included some very stereotypical behaviour regarding the relationships between The Bacteriologist and his wife, Minnie. As I have said before, Minnie is put across as being a typical Victorian housewife, very trustworthy, proper and correct. She abides completely by her husband and is very loyal to him as well as to the rules of the time. This part of Victorian society is shown by Wells when Minnie is keen to make sure that her husband does not leave the house without his hat and coat, as it was seen to be disrespectful in these times. It is shown using dialogue, by Wells when the wife is shocked about the fact that her husband has left not properly dressed and she says, But running around London in the height of the season, too in his socks! Included in the plot of Stolen Bacillus are other minor characters which all have their significances in some way even though they do not have a large part to play. The cab drivers are an example of this. As I have said earlier Wells stereotypes them and portrays them as lower class, using dialogue to help illustrate this. I have also noticed that Wells does n ot name the bacteriologist or the anarchist, he just labels them or describes them, which is probably done to emphasises their characters. The structure regarding the characters in the Half Pair differs in comparison with The Stolen Bacillus as The Half Pair only contains two characters. These prominent characters however, do have similarities between the main characters in The Stolen Bacillus. Similarly to The Stolen Bacillus, in The Half Pair there is a husband and wife as main characters. In The Half Pair the couple remains nameless, similarly to the Anarchist and the bacteriologist in The Stolen Bacillus, the only prominent character to be given a name in either story was Minnie, the bacteriologists wife. The relationships between the two couples in both stories are similar, however they also differ because of the different time of writing. As I have said earlier, The Stolen Bacillus represents a Victorian relationship between Minnie and her husband, which is rife with the idea of male dominance. I also believe that there are some references to this type of behaviour in The Half Pair even though it is set much later on in time. There are some elements of the behaviour between the couple in The Half Pair that also suggest that the wife is dominated by her husband. This behaviour is certainly not to the same extent as the in The Stolen Bacillus, and we also find that it is actually the husband in The Half Pair who is trying to abide to rules of good manners and not lower his standards when he says, We agreed that we werent going to let ourselves lapse, get sloppy The drinks straight from the bottle and the food straight from the can In comparing the characters in each story I feel that Wells conjures up stronger, more meaningful ones that are rife with personality. One way in which both authors have created and defined characters is by carefully selecting the language and dialogue that they use. The language used in each story is different because of the eras they were written in. The Case of the Stolen Bacillus is harder to read and comprehend, due to the changes in English language, between the Victorian era and present day, although it demonstrates the correct manner of speaking at its time of writing. The Stolen Bacillus frequently uses scientific terminology, to make the story more convincing to the reader. Wells uses relatively simple scientific descriptions such as cholera, as to not make the story to complicated. In Wellss story there were not many futuristic descriptions as it was set at a similar time to writing and was mainly based upon something that hadnt happened yet. Bertrum Chandler also includes scientific terminology in his story, The Half Pair. The content however is more futuristic and complicated. This is because the author is trying to predict the future and to do so needs to include advanced ideas. For example Chandler uses descriptions such as centrifugal force. The dialogue present in each story demonstrates more clearly many of the characters personalities. I feel that throughout both stories the dialogue is convincing although there are some elements which I feel were not as believable. For example I feel that in The Stolen Bacillus Wells might have over exaggerated the relationship between Minnie and The Bacteriologist. He achieved this by including speeches between the couple where Minnie simply agreed with everything her husband said, she often used the phrase yes dear. I feet that this became humorous throughout the story as she behaved completely different around her husband than anyone else. Wells probably expressed her character in this way in order to emphasise the stereotypical Victorian female role she plays. The dialogue in The Half Pair seems to be more like the present way of speaking. This is because the characters tended to speak in a more colloquial fashion, with not much use of complicated words and the sarcasm used is more relevant to todays society. An example of sarcasm is when she says, Anyone would think that youd lost the Crown Jewels There are many different ideas within both stories that contain morals and messages that the authors are trying to put across. In The Case of the Stolen Bacillus there are many interlinked morals, messages and ideas. Wells focuses intently on stereotyping individuals and groups of people of the time. This is done so that the messages which he puts across can be stronger, and also, so that he can subtly mock different people. One idea where Wells used this technique was when he referred to the class system, however he did this less obviously and consequently the message is not as strong. Wells also stereotyped The Bacteriologist as being a typical amateur scientist. His idea is put across in the story so that Wells can warn people about the risks of bacteriological research. Wells probably wants to warn people as he studied science and realises the risks and may be angered by the way amateurs have the responsibilities of investigating bacteria. Another one of the main ideas that Wells expresses in his story is that of Anarchy, and how it doesnt fit in with society. He mocks anarchy, and I believe that he is trying to say that anarchists are not necessarily fighting for a cause, but just trying to get attention. Wells shows this in the story due to the failure of the anarchists plan, and how the anarchist believes he can spread cholera by bumping into people, which seems laughable in todays society and to a certain extent the Victorian society. I feel that this message is effective but it is only towards the end of the story that the reader realises that Wells is subtly trying to mock anarchy. The Half Pair differs from Wellss story, as it only appears to put across one main message. I feel that Chandler uses the pair of cufflinks to illustrate his message, loved ones are more important than trivial things dont take them for granted. Chandlers use of the cufflinks is very ingenious and they link the message to the story. The cufflinks at the beginning the play are seen as very important to the man, however towards the end, when his life is a risk, the cufflinks become rather insignificant. Chandler ends the story in a very ingenious way, as the message is only revealed to the reader at the very end of the story when the wife says, I do so hate a half pair of anything and I dont mean only cufflinks! This last line of the story is also clever, as it links it together with the first line of the play, and gives the whole story and the message some significance. Another smaller message which I believe Chandler may be putting across is that people will always have the same sorts of problems thoughts and feelings, no matter what the day and age. Overall I believe that Chandler is trying to say that however much our world changes in the future, relationships and love will still be of upmost importance, and no matter what, couples will still have to overcome mundane problems even with a technologically advanced world around them. I believe that both stories are effective in putting across messages, however Wells includes more, and preaches them more subtly. In The Stolen Bacillus, the messages are there, but you have to look for them. The Half Pair messages tended to be simpler and easier to understand, but this is probably due to myself, the reader finding the story easier to comprehend as they relate to modern day more so than in The Stolen Bacillus. Although in todays society The Half Pair is easier to relate to, I feel that both of the stories relate their messages and content to the societies in which they were written. In comparing the two stories I have found many differences and similarities, however I now have to consider whether each of them are examples of good science fiction. I stated at the beginning of this essay, some definitions of science fiction and elements which writing of the science fiction genre should have. I have looked at each story against the definitions and elements of science fiction, and have seen how they have corresponded. I feel that both stories fit into the science fiction genre and they both contain most of the elements which a good piece of sci-fi writing does. The Case of The Stolen Bacillus contains a moral and a twist but it is not set in the future, however it does contain futuristic ideas. The Half Pair appears to contain all of the elements which I mentioned at the beginning of this essay, however I dont believe that they have been expressed as well as in Wellss story. Each story also tries to put meaningful messages across to a reader of the time of writing, although I believe that these messages are still applicable in society today. The twists in both stories are reasonably effective. I found that in The Case of the Stolen Bacillus the twist was not as well written, and therefore not as effective. Although each story differs in how well they correspond to the element of science fiction, a factor that suggests that both of these pieces are good science fiction writing is that they correlate strongly to the definitions given by Ray Bradbury and Bruce H. Franklin.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

9 Myths That Can Sabotage Your Career in Your 20s -TheJobNetwork

9 Myths That Can Sabotage Your Career in Your 20s -TheJobNetwork You’re in your 20s and hoping to set yourself up for a lifetime of success. Trouble is, the media portrays you as a useless wanderer, unable to move past adolescence, and not able to get it done as older generations have. But none of this is true. Here are 9 of the most common myths you hear about changing careers in your 20s, and how you can start working against them to get yourself on track. 1. Your twenties don’t matterStop thinking of your twenties as a practice ground for your real work life, which will begin at 30. The choices you make now can have an impact, positive and negative, on your professional future. Don’t delay starting your life and career by someone else’s arbitrary calendar of when you can and cannot be serious about things. Start being the person you want to be when you grow up now and get a head start.2. You need to find your perfect career firstYou don’t actually have to hold out for your absolute dream job. It’s okay- crucial even- to take jobs that are less than ideal but which have the benefit of being a good stepping stone for you. Can a job lead to a better opportunity down the road? Can it build a valuable skill relevant to your dream career? Can it give you necessary, if unorthodox, experience that will help you in your path? Consider taking some of these, rather than waiting indefinitely for the golden ring.3. You can do anything you want to doNope, not if you don’t have the right skills or experience. Make sure to be honest with yourself about your particular strengths and weaknesses before setting your goals. That way you won’t spend the next few years of your life laboring over the impossible. You can do anything you want, provided it’s also something you are capable of doing.4. Work isn’t supposed to feel like workYeah, yeah, you’re supposed to do what you love and love what you do. But the fact remains that even one’s dream job is still, at t he end of the day, a job. If you follow your passion and find work that is really meaningful to you, that’s fantastic. Most people don’t get that in a lifetime. But that doesn’t mean it won’t sometimes feel like work, because it is. The sooner you prepare yourself for this, the better off you’ll be.5. You can pursue your dream job laterWhile this is true, and going after what you really want is always an option, it never hurts to start making the moves and taking the risks now, when you don’t have mortgages or family to hinder you.6. If you don’t like your job, you should quitContrary to popular opinion, it is time to start being responsible with your decisions. Before you make any rash decisions because you just don’t like something, think first about whether you can financially handle such a leap. And second, examine why you don’t like your job. Figure out why you wanted that job originally, what you do like about it, what could change to make it better for you, and only after answering those questions should you think about where else you should look.7. Run from all bad bossesBad bosses can be toxic and make your work life unbearable. But they can also be an extremely valuable learning experience. If this is a really good position for you, consider sticking it out. Get what you can from your current job, and mine it for everything you can to use in your next job, with your next employer.8. Job hopping is badMore and more, the stigma around job hopping has disappeared. This is the time in your life when it is okay to try new things and new positions and new fields. Just remember to try to keep some coherent factors similar across the different jobs you take. And always keep in mind how you will answer the question, â€Å"How have you spent the last five years?† Keep a close hold on your narrative arc, and you’ll be fine.9. Twentysomethings are entitledYou’re not necessarily n arcissistic or entitled, you’re just inexperienced. As long as you keep moving forward, trying to develop yourself and your career, you can just ignore these voices- in your head or in the media- and go after the life and work you want.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Management - Assignment Example The other stakeholders include Feeding America, the National Network of Food Banks apart from volunteers who give their support for the cause (SPFB, ‘About Us’). Primary beneficiaries of SPFB are the person in need of food which is channeled through other NGOs and churches working towards the benefit of the society. It is evident from the mission and vision of SPFB that is not for profit organization and is primarily Business to Business (B2B) organization as it provides services through other stakeholders, not directly to the needy (SPFB, ‘About Us’). The SPFB implements marketing mix strategy successfully. The 4Ps of marketing mix strategy is strategically employed by the organization where product is their service i.e. providing free food to hungry where the waste food is collected from restaurants, hotels and other places; provides service in 25 county areas of West Texas where food is distributed its division’s i.e. Food Bank Operations and Farm Orchard & GRUB which is further channeled through various NGOs and encourages promotion through various programmes like food drives at school, local communities, and U Can Share (SPFB, ‘Programs & Services’). As most of the programmes are done through volunteering, donations are accepted for providing food voluntarily for which effective pricing strategy is used depending on the number of meals. Similarly, funds are raised through donations through fundraising from different sectors of the society (SPFB,